Midsayap is characterized as plain to hilly terrain. Gently rolling to hilly areas are located on the Northeastern portion specifically at barangays – Kiwanan, Kimagango, Anonang, Malamote, Upper Bulanan, Arizona and Milaya. Kadingilan and Nabalawag have a hilly portion at their boundaries. All barangays on the western portion which is cut by the National Highway from Poblacion to Dulawan is plain and is presently planted with irrigated rice and other crops. The southern most barangays are marshy. This is due to its location which is along the Rio Grande de Mindanao.
Of the total land area of the municipality, 73.79 percent or 24,376.2869 hectares has a slope of 0 – 3 percent. These areas are located at the Western and Southern part of the municipality. These are mostly the irrigable rice lands. The Northeastern barangays, a portion of Central Bulanan are hilly with slopes of 3-8%. This has a total of 6,525.0 hectares. Highest slopes of 8-18% percent are situated at the boundary of barangays Arizona and Malamote. This is a total land area of 2,137.5 hectares.
There are four (4) types of soil in this municipality. These are: 1. Kudarangan Clay – a soil that is brownish in color, soil structure is fine, water percolation is okay and this soil type is fertile and good for crops; 2. Kabacan Clay – soil color is yellowish, longer period of water percolation or a type of soil that holds water, this soil type is much less fertile due to long-term use of conventional method of farming or inorganic farming; 3. San Manuel Silty Clay Loam – soil characteristic is the same as Kudarangan Clay Loam; and, 3. Hydrosol – this soil type is marshy in nature, but can still be productive if water will be drained.
Kudarangan Clay Loam is about 14,811.3532 hectares or 37.52% of the municipal land area. These are the soils at the central portion or at the heart of the municipality. Kabacan Clay Loam is found in slightly rolling to hilly terrain or at the northeastern barangays. This soil type occupies the 24.24 percent of the municipal area or 9,568.9536 hectares. San Manuel Silty Clay Loam is located at barangays Upper Labas, Nalin and portions of barangay Villarica. This occupies land area of 2,368.5529 hectares. Hydrosol type has an area of 12,727.0240 hectares or 32.24 percent of the municipal area. These lands are along the Rio de Grande de Mindanao. These are also the waterlogged areas.
The highest portion of municipal land area (14,811.3532 hectares) is classified as good land. These are the land centrally located in the municipality. These lands are nearly level lands and can be cultivated safely.
However, protection from occasional overflow is required. The 12,727.0240 hectares which are also Hydrosol type are wetlands and is suitable for fishpond or recreation purposes. Most of these lands are along the Rio Grande de Mindanao. The contour elevated type of land are moderately good land, moderately sloping so that cultivation requires carefully planned erosion control measures. These lands are on the Northeastern barangays and a portion of Nabalawag and Kadingilan. This had an area of 9,568.9536 hectares.
Up to this period there is no geological surveys conducted in the municipality. Presence of any mineral deposit is still undetermined.
The province is situated between 5 and 8 degrees latitude thus Midsayap and all areas within its jurisdiction are less affected by typhoon. The municipality falls under the fourth type of climate which is characterized by more or less even distribution of rainfall throughout the year. Based on the rainfall data of the NIA, heaviest rain occurred during the month of September for the year 2006, with an average rainfall of 10.39 mm per day followed by October with 10.09 mm per day and May with 9.01 mm per day. For the year 2007, June had the heaviest rain with 11.49 mm per day, followed by July with 6.27 mm per day. These results are unlike the climatic condition of the Municipality during the year 1998 when no rainfall was recorded during the months of February, March and April. This was the time of the “El Niño” Phenomenon.